5 Ağustos 2015 Çarşamba

ingilizce Zamanlar

ingilizce Zamanlar,ingilizce tenses


SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE  (Geniş zaman)

POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
QUESTION
I
-
write
I
do
not
write
do
I
write
you
-
write
you
do
not
write
do
you
write
we
-
write
we
do
not
write
do
we
write
they
-
write
they
do
not
write
do
they
write
he
-
writes
he
does
not
write
does
he
write
she
-
writes
she
does
not
write
does
she
write
it
-
writes
it
does
not
write
does
it
write
İşin mantığı: Dünya yuvarlaktır (genel) , Ateş yakar (genel) , İnsanlar acıkır ..... Gibi genel olayları ve durumları vurgulamak için Simple Present tense kullanılır.
1.Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen
2.Most animals kill only for food
3.The world is round
Simple Present tense genelde olan olay ve durumla rı vurgulamak için kullanılır ,bunlar; geçmişte vardı , şu an var , gelecekte de olacak . örn: Dünyanın dönmesi .
1.I study for two hours every night
2.My classes begin at nine
3.He always eats a sandwich for lunch
Simple present tense günlük aktiviteleri ve alışkanlıkları vurgulamak için de kullanılır.
1.I don't recognize that man
2.He needs a pen right now
Belirli fiilerin continuous tense ( şimdiki zaman ) halleri olmadığından bu tens'te kullanılmaları zorunludur.
Aşaıdaki fiiler normalde continuous tenslerle kullanılmazlar
Appreciate
Depend
Hate
Need
See
Understand
Believe
Dislike
Hear
Owe
Seem
Want
Belong
Doubt
İmagine
Own
Seem
İnclude
Care
Envy
Know
Possess
Smell
Consist
Exist
Like
Prefer
Sound
Cost
Fear
Love
Realise
Suppose
Contain
Feel
Mean
Remember
Taste
Sonu s , sh , ch , x ile biten sözcüklerin çoğulu ve fiilerin geniş zaman halleri -es takısı alırlar.
Finish
Finishes
Bus
Buses
Watch
Watches
Box
Boxes
Sonu y ile biten sözcükler - ies takısı alırlar , fakat y nin önünde sesli harf varsa sonuna sadece - s gelir
Study
studies
Baby
babies
Try
tries
Boy
boys
Sonu f veya fe ile biten sözcükler - ves takısıyla çoğul olurlar
knife
knives
shellf
shellves
Geniş zamanda Have fiili he , she , it için has olarak değişir. · have a shover everyday · John has a shover everyday
Sıklık belirten fiiller Sımple present tens'te özneden hemen sonra gelirleralways / Never / often / Sometimes / Usually + Present simple (Geniş zaman)
· Sue always arrives at work early · I usually go to work by car but sometimes I walk · Julia never eats breakfast

PRESENT CONTINUOUS (PROGRESSIVE) { ŞİMDİKİ ZAMAN } 

POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
QUESTION
I
am
writing
I
am
not
writing
am
I
writing
you
are
writing
you
are
not
writing
are
you
writing
we
are
writing
we
are
not
writing
are
we
writing
they
are
writing
they
are
not
writing
are
they
writing
he
is
writing
he
is
not
writing
is
he
writing
she
is
writing
she
is
not
writing
is
she
writing
it
is
writing
it
is
not
writing
is
it
writing
Bu tens konuşma anında devam eden (süren) aktiviteleri vurgulamak için kullanılır ( ŞU AN )
· John is sleeping right now
· I need an umbrella because it is raining
· John and marry are talking on phone
Bu tens ayrıca genelde süreklilik halinde olan aktiviteleri vurgulamak için de kullanılır.
· am taking five course this semester
· John is trying to improve his work habits
· She is writing another book this year
Sonu - e ile biten fiillerde -e düşer - ing gelir
make
making
write
writing
come
coming
dance
dancing
Sonu - ie ile biten fiiller - ying takısı alırlar
lie
lying
die
dying
tie
tying
Eğer tek heceli bir fiilin sonu ( sesli + sessiz ) harf ile bitiyorsa son sessiz ikilenerek - ing takısı alır.
stop
stopping
Bu kuralın istisnası şudur: eğer bir fiilin sonu ( -y ) veya ( - w ) sessizlerinden biri
ile bitiyorsa, fiil tek heceli bile olsa son sessiz ikilenmez.
run
running
get
getting
swim
swimming
big
bigger
hot
hotter
thin
thinner
draw
drawing
play
playing
İki veya daha fazla heceli fiilerde son sessizin ikilenmesine gerek yoktur
happen
happening
visit
visiting
remember
remembering
Sonu iki sessizle biten tek heceli fiiler direkt olarak - ing takısı alırlar
help
helping
work
working
SIMPLE PAST  ( GEÇMİŞ ZAMAN )
POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
QUESTION
I
-
wrote
I
did
not
write
did
I
write
you
-
wrote
you
did
not
write
did
you
write
we
-
wrote
we
did
not
write
did
we
write
they
-
wrote
they
did
not
write
did
they
write
he
-
wrote
he
did
not
write
did
he
write
she
-
wrote
she
did
not
write
did
she
write
it
-
wrote
it
did
not
write
did
it
write
Simple past , geçmişte belirli bir zamanda başlamış ve bitmiş bir durum veya aktiviteyi işaret eder.
FORMÜLÜ: Özne + Verb 2 ( Fiilin 2. hali )---- yani Simple past hali
 walked to school yesterday
 He lived in paris for ten years , but now he is living in rome
 bought a new car three days ago
Eğer Simple past tense ile kurulmuş bir cümle (When) kalıbını içeriyorsa : when ile başlayan cümle diğerinden önce  olmuştur aşağıdaki ilk örnekte önce yağmur başladı sonra ağacın altında durdum ifadesi anlaşılmalıdır.
 stood under a tree when it began to rain
 when she heard a atrange noise she got up to investigate
 when I dropped my cup , the coffee spilled on my lap
Eğer geçmiş zaman (past tense) ile kullanılan bir cümlenin  fiili yoksa geçmiş zamanı belirtmek için: was werekullanılması zorunludur.
Positive
Negative
Question
I
was
I
was not
was
I
You
were
You
were not
were
You
we
were
we
were not
were
we
they
were
they
were not
were
they
he
was
he
was not
was
he
she
was
she
was not
was
she
it
was
it
was not
was
it
  • Last year Rachel was 22 , so she is 23 now
  • When I was a child , I was afraid of dogs
  • we were hungry after the journey but we weren't tired
  • the hotel was comfortable but it wasn't expensive
  • was the weather good when you were on holiday
  • those shoes are nice . were they expensive
  • why were you late this morning
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE  ( Türkçede karşılığı yok )
POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
QUESTION
I
have
written
I
have
not
written
have
I
written
you
have
written
you
have
not
written
have
you
written
we
have
written
we
have
not
written
have
we
written
they
have
written
they
have
not
written
have
they
written
he
has
written
he
has
not
written
has
he
written
she
has
written
she
has
not
written
has
she
written
it
has
written
it
has
not
written
has
it
written
1. They have moved into a new aparttment.
2. Have you ever visited Mexico.
3. I have already seen that movie.
4. I have never seen snow
Present Perfect şu fikri vurgular: Şu andan önce meyda na gelmiş veya gelmemiş birşeyi anlatırken kesin zaman ın önemli olmadığı durumlar. (Eğer belirli bir zaman var sa Simple past kullanılır.)
5. We have had four tests so far this semester
6. I have written my wife a letter every other day for the last two weeks.
7. I have met many people since I came here in june
8. I have flown on an airplane many times
Present perfect birde  şu andan önceki bir aktivitenin tekrarını vurgular,her tekrarın kesin zamanı önemli değildir
9. I have been here since seven o'clock
10.We have been here for two weeks
11.I have had this same pair of shoes for three years
12.I have liked cowboy movies ever since I was a child
Present perfect tense ayrıca for ve since ile kullanı labilir. O zaman şunu vurgular: Bir durum geçmişte başlmış  şu anda da devam ediyor
Since + belirli bir zaman ( since: denberi )
For + zamanın sürekliliği ( For: dır )
Present Perfect Simple nin kullanımları
1.kullanımı: Geçmişte başlamış ve bugüne kadar devam eden bir zaman periyodundan bahsediyorsak bu tensi kullanmak zorundayız. Bu zaman periyodu bütün hayatımızdaki deneyimleri kapsayabilir. Hayatımız da herhangi bir deneyimi yaşayıp yaşamadığımız bu tens ile sorulur.
  • Have you ever been to China   ( Hiç çinde bulundunmu? )
  • Have you ever eaten caviar      ( Hiç havyar yedinmi ? )
  • haven't been to  India             ( Hindistanda hiç bulunmadım )
  • We have never had a car         ( Hiçbir zaman arabamız olmadı )
  • It's the most boring film I've ever seen . (Hayatımda gördüğüm en sıkıcı film.)
  • haven't eaten anything since breakfast ( Kahvaltıdan beri hiçbirşey yemedim )
2.kullanım: Present perfect kullanıldığında genellikle bugün ile bir bağlantı vardır. Eğer geçmişte olmuş bir eylemin sonucu bugünü etkiliyorsa yine bu tens kullanılır.
  • Where's your key ? I don't know. I 've lost it ( Şu an anahtarım yok )
  • He told me his name but  I 've forgotten it   ( Adını söylemişti fakat unuttum )
  • I can't find my bag. Have you seen it ?  ( Çantamı bulamıyorum, onu gördünmü?)
3.kullanım: Geçmişle bugünü bağlayan bir köprü olarak kullanılır.
I started learninig english in september
I am still lerning english
have lerned English since september (Eylülden beri ingilizce öğreniyorum)-üstteki iki cümleyi birleştirdi.
Ayşe is my best friend  I met Ayşe seven years ago
have known her for 7 years ( onu yedi yıldır tanıyorum ) I am a teacher
I started teaching 20 years ago
have been a teacher for 20 years. ( 20 yıldır öğretmenim )
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS  ( PROGRESSIVE )
POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
QUESTION
I
have
been writing
I
have
not
been writing
have
I
been writing
you
have
been writing
you
have
not
been writing
have
you
been writing
we
have
been writing
we
have
not
been writing
have
we
been writing
they
have
been writing
they
have
not
been writing
have
they
been writing
he
has
been writing
he
has
not
been writing
has
he
been writing
she
has
been writing
she
has
not
been writing
has
she
been writing
it
has
been writing
it
has
not
been writing
has
it
been writing
Present Perfect continuous , yakın zamanda veya henüz sona ermiş bir aktivitenin ifadesinde kullanılabilir
bu aktivitenin şu an ile bağlantısı vardır.
Örn: Eve gittiniz çocuğunuzun gözleri kıpkırmızı ve ne olduğunu öğreneceksiniz . What have you been doing  demeniz lazım ( What are you doing olmaz.)
Örn: A şahsı avrupa turuna çıkmış ve B şahsıyla ispanyada karşılaşıyor  A' nın gideceği  yerler sıralı:
1. France
2. England
3.Spain
4. Germany
5. Italy
A: What have you been doing ? ( Ne yapıyorsun )
B: I have been traveling around Europe
(eğer A şahsı: What are you doing deseydi , B şahsı o anda ne yapıyorsa onu söylerdi , alışveriş yapıyo rum vs. derdi.)
A: Which countries have you visited
B: I have visited France and England and now I'm in Spain , I haven't been Germany and Italy yet.
Right now I am sitting at my desk.
1. I have been sitting here since seven o'clock.
2. I have been sitting here for two hours
3. You have been studying for five straight hourse
Bu tens bir aktivitenin sürekliliğini vurgulamak için kullanılır.Sözü edilen aktivite geçmişte başladı ve şu an devam etmektedir. Tense bu anlamı zamanı simgeleyen kelimelerle veririz. Bunlar:
For , Since , all morning , all day , all week.
5. I have been thinking about changing my major.
6. All of the students have been studying hard .Final   exams start next week.
7. My back hurts , so I have been sleeping on the floor lately. the bed is too soft.
Presen perfect continuous tens zamanın herhangi bir spesifik anlamı dışında kullanıldığında, genel bir aktivitenin son zamanlardaki sürekliliğini vurgular.
8. I have lived here since 1985
I have been living here since 1985
9. he has worked at the same store for ten years
He has been working at the same store for ten  years
Live , work , teach gibi continuous tensleri olan fiillerlesince veya for kullanıldığında , present perfect continuous ile present perfect simple arasın da pek bir fark olmaz. Yandaki örneklerde pek bir anlam farkı yoktu
PAST PERFECT TENSE  ( MİŞLİ GEÇMİŞ ZAMAN )
POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
QUESTION
I
had
written
I
had
not
written
had
I
written
you
had
written
you
had
not
written
had
you
written
we
had
written
we
had
not
written
had
we
written
they
had
written
they
had
not
written
had
they
written
he
had
written
he
had
not
written
had
he
written
she
had
written
she
had
not
written
had
she
written
it
had
written
it
had
not
written
had
it
written
1. My parents had already eaten by the time I got home
2. Until yesterday, I had never heard about it .
3. The thief simply walked in. Someone had forgotten to lock thedoor.
Past perfect tense: gemişte bir aktivitenin başka bir aktiviteden önce tamamlandığını vurgular. yani:Geç mişte oluşmuş iki eylem var fakat 1. eylem , 2.cisin den önce olmuş işte 1.eylem past perfec tir.
4. Sam had already left when we got there
5. Sam had left before we got there
6. Sam left before we got there
7. after the guests had left. I went to bed
4. d: önce sam ayrıldı sonra biz oraya vardık. (yani: biz vardığımızda sam ayrılmıştı). Eğer bir cümlede before veyaafter kullanılıyorsa genellikle past per fect tense gerekli değildir. Simple past 6. ve 8. ci örneklerde belki kullanılabilir. Not: 5-6 ve 7-8 aynı an lamdadır.
  • When Sarah arrived at the party , Paul had already gone home
  • When we got home last night , we found that somebody had broken into the flat
  • Karen didn't want to come to the cinema with us because  she had already seen the film.
  • I didn't know who she was . I had never seen her before
  • The house was dirty. They hadn't cleaned it for weeks
PAST CONTINUOUS (PROGRESSIVE)  ( GEÇMİŞTE SÜREKLİLİK )
POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
QUESTION
I
was
writing
I
was
not
writing
was
I
writing
he
was
writing
he
was
not
writing
was
he
writing
she
was
writing
she
was
not
writing
was
she
writing
it
was
writing
it
was
not
writing
was
it
writing
we
were
writing
we
were
not
writing
were
we
writing
you
were
writing
you
were
not
writing
were
you
writing
they
were
writing
they
were
not
writing
were
they
writing

İşin Mantığı: geçmişte süregelen bir eylem kesintiye uğruyor.
Örn: dün tam okula yürürken yağmur başladı  ( yürüme eylemi sürerken , bu ylemin belirli bir yerinde  yağmur eyleminin devreye girmesi)
1. I was walking down the street when it began to rain
2. While I was walking down the street,it began to rain
3. I was standing under a tree when it began to rain
1. de Önce caddeden aşağıya yürüyordum,sonra yağmur başladı.Örneklerde iki eylemde aynı zamanda meydana geliyor fakat biri, diğeri başladığında ,daha önce başlayıp süreklilik halin dedir.
4. At eight o'clock last night , I was studying
5. Last year at this time I was attending school
4. örnekte: Benim çalışmam 8'den önce başladı ve 8'de ben çalışıyordum, muhtemelen çalışmam sonrasın dada devam etti
6. While I was studying in one room of our apartment my roommate was having a party in the other room
Eğer iki eylem benzer şekilde süreklilik halindeyse Past continuous cümlenin iki bölümündede kullanı labilir (baazen)
7. It rained this morning
8. It was raining
Bazı durumlarda simple past ve past continuous aynı anlamı verebilir (7 ve 8 deki gibi)
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS  ( -makta - mekte )
POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
QUESTION
I
had
been writing
I
had
not
been writing
had
I
been writing
you
had
been writing
you
had
not
been writing
had
you
been writing
we
had
been writing
we
had
not
been writing
had
we
been writing
they
had
been writing
they
had
not
been writing
had
they
been writing
he
had
been writing
he
had
not
been writing
had
he
been writing
she
had
been writing
she
had
not
been writing
had
she
been writing
it
had
been writing
it
had
not
been writing
had
it
been writing
Geçmişte olmuş iki eylem var ve bunlardan önce olanın sürekliliği past perfect continuous tense ile vurgu lanır.
1. Our game of  tennis was interrupted. we'd been playing for about half an hour when it started to rain very havily.
2. Ken give up smoking two years ago. He'd been smoking for 30 years.
1. The police had been looking for the criminal for two years before they caught him
2. The patient had been waiting in the emergency room for almost an hour before  a doctor finally treated her
3. He finally came at six o'clock I had been waiting for him since four - thirty.
Past perfect continuous: geçmişte bir eylemden önce başka bir eylemin süreklilik içerisinde oldu ğunu vurgular.
4. When judy got home, her hair was still wet because she had been swimming
5.Her eyes were red because she  had been crying
Bu tens ayrıca geçmişteki bir eyleme yakın zamanlı fakat ondan daha önce olan bağlantısız bir eylemin sürekliliğini vurgulamak için de kulanılır.
SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE  (Gelecek zaman)
POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
QUESTION
I
will
write
I
will
not
write
will
I
write
you
will
write
you
will
not
write
will
you
write
we
will
write
we
will
not
write
will
we
write
they
will
write
they
will
not
write
will
they
write
he
will
write
he
will
not
write
will
he
write
she
will
write
she
will
not
write
will
she
write
it
will
write
it
will
not
write
will
it
write
POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
QUESTION
I
am
going to
write
I
am
not
going to
write
am
I
going to
write
you
are
going to
write
you
are
not
going to
write
are
you
going to
write
we
are
going to
write
we
are
not
going to
write
are
we
going to
write
they
are
going to
write
they
are
not
going to
write
are
they
going to
write
he
is
going to
write
he
is
not
going to
write
is
he
going to
write
she
is
going to
write
she
is
not
going to
write
is
she
going to
write
it
is
going to
write
it
is
not
going to
write
is
it
going to
write
Konuşma anında geleceğe dönük bir eylemi ifade etmek için will kullanılır. Going to ise önceden yapılan planlar ve niyetler için kullanılır.
Örn: biri paltosunu giydi dışarıya çıkıyor. onu gören kişi will ile soru sorar, çıkan kişinin diyelim ki o saatte biriyle buluşması gerekiyor  ( önceden planlamış ) going to ile cevap verir.
1. He will finished his work tomorrow.
2. He is going to finish his work tomorrow
Will veya be going to , gelecek zamanı vurgulamak için kullanılır.
FUTURE CONTINUOUS  (Gelecekte süreklilik)
POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
QUESTION
I
will
be
writing
I
will
not
be
writing
will
I
be
writing
you
will
be
writing
you
will
not
be
writing
will
you
be
writing
we
will
be
writing
we
will
not
be
writing
will
we
be
writing
they
will
be
writing
they
will
not
be
writing
will
they
be
writing
he
will
be
writing
he
will
not
be
writing
will
he
be
writing
she
will
be
writing
she
will
not
be
writing
will
she
be
writing
it
will
be
writing
it
will
not
be
writing
will
it
be
writing
I will be doing something = birşeyler yapıyor olacağım ( bir eylemin ortasında olacağım )
Örn: The football match begins at 7:30 and ends at  9:15  so  during this time ,for example  8:30 , Kevin will be watching the match.
- This time tomorrow I'll be travelling through france
- In the 21 st century, people  will be living to the age of 130
1. I will begin to study at seven. You will come at eight . I will be studying when you come.
2. Right now I am sitting in class . At the same time tomorrow I will be sitting in class.
The future continuous tense gelecek zamanda bir aktivitenin süreklilik halinde olacağını vurgular.
3. Don't call me at nine , because I won't be home .I am ging to be studying at the library.
be going to nun continuous formu:
be going to + be + - ing
4. Don't get impatient . She will be coming soon
5. Don't get impatient . She will come soon
Baazen future continuous ile simple future arasında çok çok az bir farklılık vardır veya hiçbir farklılık yoktur. Özellikle  gelecekteki olay belirsiz bir zaman da meydana gelmişse.
Not: teklif sorularında mutlaka shall kullan . will kullanma
· shall we phone to see what time the film start
· shall I carry that heavy case for you
FUTURE PERFECT ( Gelecekte geçmiş )
POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
QUESTION
I
will
have
written
I
will
not
have
written
will
I
have
written
you
will
have
written
you
will
not
have
written
will
you
have
written
we
will
have
written
we
will
not
have
written
will
we
have
written
they
will
have
written
they
will
not
have
written
will
they
have
written
he
will
have
written
he
will
not
have
written
will
he
have
written
she
will
have
written
she
will
not
have
written
will
she
have
written
it
will
have
written
it
will
not
have
written
will
it
have
written
Future Perfect tense: Gelecekte , kesin bir zamandan önce birşeyin tamamlanmış olacağını vurgular Örn: 1.He will have finished his exams by december.
2.Kevin's football match ends at 9:15 so after this time ,for example at 9:30 the matcah will have finished.
3.Sally always leaves for work at 8:30 in the morning , so she will not be at home at 9 o'clock.She will   have  gone to work. ( sally sabahları daima 8:30 da işe gider bundan dolayı saat 9 da evde olmayacak,işe gitmiş olacak)
4.We are late. The film will already have started by the time we get to the cinema ( Geç kaldık, biz sinema ya varana kadar film başlamış olacak.)
5.When their first child was born ,they had been married for three years. - past perfect
Ted and Amy have been married for 24 years - present perfect
Next year they will have been married for 25 years - future perfect
 I will graduate in june . I will see you in july. By the next time I see you , I will have graduat ed
 I will have finished my homework by the time I go out on a date tonight.
The future perfect tense: Gelecekte başka bir zaman veya olaydan önce tamamlanmış bir aktiviteyi vurgular
FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS ( Gelecekte süreklilik )
POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
QUESTION
I
will
have been
writing
I
will
not
have been
writing
will
I
have been
writing
you
will
have been
writing
you
will
not
have been
writing
will
you
have been
writing
we
will
have been
writing
we
will
not
have been
writing
will
we
have been
writing
they
will
have been
writing
they
will
not
have been
writing
will
they
have been
writing
he
will
have been
writing
he
will
not
have been
writing
will
he
have been
writing
she
will
have been
writing
she
will
not
have been
writing
will
she
have been
writing
it
will
have been
writing
it
will
not
have been
writing
will
it
have been
writing
Future Perfect continuous: gelecekteki bir zaman diliminde bir eylemin sürekliliğini vurgular .
örn: She will have been teaching here for thirty years by the time she retires next year.
örn: Margeret was born in 1950. by the year 2000, she will have been living on this earth for 50 years
1. I will go to bed at ten p.m. he will get home at midnight, at midnight I will be sleeping . I will have been sleeping for two hours by the time he gets home.
The future perfect continuous ,gelecekte başka bir zaman veya olaydan önce bir eylemin süreklilik içinde ola cağını vurgular.
2. When Professor jones retires next month, he will have taught for 45 years.
3. When professor jones retires next month , he will have been teaching for 45 years
Bazen Future perfect ve Future perfect continuous aynı anlamı verir . örn: 2 ve 3 teki gibi. Ayrıca sözko nusu aktivitenin geçmiş zamanda başlamış olabile ceği de dikkate alınmalıdır.
1. Ann and Andy got married on june 1.st. Today is june 14 th. Ann and Andy have been married for two weeks.By june 28 th , they will have been married for four weeks.
2. This morning I came to class at 9:00. Right now it is 10:00, and I am still in class ,
have been sitting here for a half an hour . By 11:00
I will have been sitting here for two hours.
3. I am getting tired of sitting in the car . Do you realize that by the time we arrive in phoenix, we will have been driving for twenty straight hours.
4. I don't understand how those marathon runners do it . The race began over an hour ago . By the time they reach the finish line , they will have been running steadily for more than two hours. I don't think I can run more than two minutes.
5.We have been married for a long time . By our next anniversary ,  we will have been married for 43 years.





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